Science

Channeling the potential of integrin inhibitors

Integrins are cell surface receptor peptides attached to cell membranes with a structural role (cell adhesion) and functional role (cell signaling). They are also involved in regulating cellular response, including inflammation, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and apoptosis.

As seen in multiple systemic disorders, these cell-signaling receptors have long been recognized as facilitators of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress initiates a number of detrimental downstream effects including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated vascular leakage and angiogenesis, inflammation, and neurodegeneration.

  • No treatment is currently available for intermediate dry AMD
  • About half of DME patients do not adequately respond to the current standard of care1
  • Patients report low scores for DED symptom relief from OTC medication4

 

Tapping into multiple pathways of oxidative stress in ophthalmology

Neovascular (wet) and nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects more than 10 million Americans—more than cataracts and glaucoma combined—with “dry” AMD making up 85%-90% of those cases.1 The current standard of care for wet AMD are the well-established anti-VEGF treatments. Unfortunately, approximately 50% of patients do not respond adequately to this type of treatment. In addition, there is currently no treatment for intermediate dry AMD.

Clinically significant dry eye disease (DED) affects an estimated 5 million Americans over the age of 50, and the results of a recent Gallup poll showed that more than 26 million Americans suffer from dry eyes, with that number expected to increase to more than 29 million in the next ten years. The symptoms include scratchy, stinging or burning sensations, and pain or redness in the eye. This frequently blurs vision, reduces reading ability, and produces light sensitivity in many patients.2 Currently available treatments simply don’t adequately meet the needs of patients.

We believe that integration of an upstream, broad-spectrum approach such as integrin inhibition therapy has the potential to revolutionize the treatment paradigm for intermediate dry AMD, DME and DED, thereby improving quality of life for patients around the world.


  1. American Macular Degeneration Foundation. What is Macular Degeneration? https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration. Accessed May 21, 2019.
  2. R Adler, MD. Dry eye syndrome: Symptoms and causes. https://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/dryeye-syndrome.htm. Accessed April 23, 2019. Published April, 2019.
  3. Singer MA, Kermany DS, Waters J, et al. F1000Res. 2016;5.
  4. Nichols KK, Bacharach J, Holland E, et al. Impact of Dry Eye Disease on Work Productivity, and Patients’ Satisfaction With Over-the-Counter Dry Eye Treatments. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2016;57(7):2975-2982. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-19419.